Table of Contents

Noise Cross-correlation Simulations

Besides earthquake simulations, SPECFEM3D Cartesian includes functionality for seismic noise tomography as well. In order to proceed successfully in this chapter, it is critical that you have already familiarized yourself with procedures for meshing (Chapter [cha:Mesh-Generation]), creating distributed databases (Chapter [cha:Creating-Distributed-Databases]), running earthquake simulations (Chapters [cha:Running-the-Solver]) and adjoint simulations (Chapter [cha:Adjoint-Simulations]). Also, make sure you read the article ‘Noise cross-correlation sensitivity kernels’ (Tromp et al. 2010), in order to understand noise simulations from a theoretical perspective.

Input Parameter Files

As usual, the three main input files are crucial: Par_file, CMTSOLUTION and STATIONS. Unless otherwise specified, those input files should be located in directory DATA/.

CMTSOLUTION is required for all simulations. At a first glance, it may seem unexpected to have it here, since the noise simulations should have nothing to do with the earthquake – CMTSOLUTION. However, for noise simulations, it is critical to have no earthquakes. In other words, the moment tensor specified in CMTSOLUTION must be set to zero manually!

STATIONS remains the same as in previous earthquake simulations, except that the order of receivers listed in STATIONS is now important. The order will be used to determine the ‘main’ receiver, i.e., the one that simultaneously cross correlates with the others.

Par_file also requires careful attention. A parameter called NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY has been added which specifies the type of simulation to be run. NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY is an integer with possible values 0, 1, 2 and 3. For example, when NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY equals 0, a regular earthquake simulation will be run. When it is 1/2/3, you are about to run step 1/2/3 of the noise simulations respectively. Should you be confused by the three steps, refer to Tromp et al. (2010) for details.

Another change to Par_file involves the parameter NSTEP. While for regular earthquake simulations this parameter specifies the length of synthetic seismograms generated, for noise simulations it specifies the length of the seismograms used to compute cross correlations. The actual cross correlations are thus twice this length, i.e., $2 \mathrm{NSTEP}-1$. The code automatically makes the modification accordingly, if NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY is not zero.

There are other parameters in Par_file which should be given specific values. For instance, since the first two steps for calculating noise sensitivity kernels correspond to forward simulations, SIMULATION_TYPE must be 1 when NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY equals 1 or 2. Also, we have to reconstruct the ensemble forward wavefields in adjoint simulations, therefore we need to set SAVE_FORWARD to .true. for the second step, i.e., when NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY equals 2. The third step is for kernel constructions. Hence SIMULATION_TYPE should be 3, whereas SAVE_FORWARD must be .false..

Finally, for most system architectures, please make sure that LOCAL_PATH in Par_file is in fact local, not globally shared. Because we have to save the wavefields at the earth’s surface at every time step, it is quite problematic to have a globally shared LOCAL_PATH, in terms of both disk storage and I/O speed.

Noise Simulations: Step by Step

Proper parameters in those parameter files are not enough for noise simulations to run. We have more parameters to specify: for example, the ensemble-averaged noise spectrum, the noise distribution etc. However, since there are a few ‘new’ files, it is better to introduce them sequentially. In this section, standard procedures for noise simulations are described.

Pre-simulation

  • As usual, we first configure the software package using:

    ./configure FC=ifort MPIFC=mpif90

Use the following if SCOTCH is needed:

  ./configure FC=ifort MPIFC=mpif90 --with-scotch-dir=/opt/scotch
  • Next, we need to compile the source code using:

    make xgenerate_databases make xspecfem3D

  • Before we can run noise simulations, we have to specify the noise statistics, e.g., the ensemble-averaged noise spectrum. Matlab scripts are provided to help you to generate the necessary file:

    EXAMPLES/noise_tomography/NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY.m (main program) EXAMPLES/noise_tomography/PetersonNoiseModel.m

In Matlab, simply run:

  NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY(NSTEP, DT, Tmin, Tmax, NOISE_MODEL)

DT is given in Par_file, but NSTEP is NOT the one specified in Par_file. Instead, you have to feed $2 \mathrm{NSTEP}-1$ to account for the doubled length of cross correlations. Tmin and Tmax correspond to the period range you are interested in, whereas NOISE_MODEL denotes the noise model you will be using (’NLNM’ for New Low Noise Model or ’NHNM’ for New High Noise Model). Details can be found in the Matlab script.

After running the Matlab script, you will be given the following information (plus a figure in Matlab):

  *************************************************************
  the source time function has been saved in:
  ..../S_squared (note this path must be different)
  S_squared should be put into directory:
  ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/ in the SPECFEM3D Cartesian package

In other words, the Matlab script creates a file called S_squared, which is the first ‘new’ input file we encounter for noise simulations.

One may choose a flat noise spectrum rather than Peterson’s noise model. This can be done easily by modifying the Matlab script a little.

  • Create a new directory in the SPECFEM3D Cartesian package, name it as ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/. We will add some parameter files later in this folder.

  • Put the Matlab-generated-file S_squared in ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/.

That’s to say, you will have a file ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/S_squared in the example provided in the SPECFEM3D Cartesian package.

  • Create a file called ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/irec_main_noise. Note that this file is located in directory ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/ as well. In general, all noise simulation related parameter files go into that directory. irec_main_noise contains only one integer, which is the ID of the ‘main’ receiver. For example, if this file contains 5, it means that the fifth receiver listed in DATA/STATIONS becomes the ‘main’. That’s why we mentioned previously that the order of receivers in DATA/STATIONS is important.

Note that in some simulations, the DATA/STATIONS might contain receivers which are outside of our computational domains. Therefore, the integer in irec_main_noise is actually the ID in DATA/STATIONS_FILTERED (which is generated by bin/xgenerate_databases).

  • Create a file called ./NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY/nu_main. This file holds three numbers, forming a (unit) vector. It describes which component we are cross-correlating at the ‘main’ receiver, i.e., ${\hat{{\bf \nu}}}^{\alpha}$ in Tromp et al. (2010). The three numbers correspond to E/N/Z components respectively. Most often, the vertical component is used, and in those cases the three numbers should be 0, 0 and 1.

  • Describe the noise direction and distributions in src/specfem3d/noise_tomography.f90. Search for a subroutine called noise_distribution_direction in noise_tomography.f90. It is actually located at the very beginning of noise_tomography.f90. The default assumes vertical noise and a uniform distribution across the whole free surface of the model. It should be quite self-explanatory for modifications. Should you modify this part, you have to re-compile the source code.

Simulations

With all of the above done, we can finally launch our simulations. Again, please make sure that the LOCAL_PATH in Par_file is not globally shared. It is quite problematic to have a globally shared LOCAL_PATH, in terms of both disk storage and speed of I/O (we have to save the wavefields at the earth’s surface at every time step).

As discussed in Tromp et al. (2010), it takes three steps/simulations to obtain one contribution of the ensemble sensitivity kernels:

  • Step 1: simulation for generating wavefields

    SIMULATION_TYPE = 1 NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY = 1 SAVE_FORWARD (not used, can be either .true. or .false.)

  • Step 2: simulation for ensemble forward wavefields

    SIMULATION_TYPE = 1 NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY = 2 SAVE_FORWARD = .true.

  • Step 3: simulation for ensemble adjoint wavefields and sensitivity kernels

    SIMULATION_TYPE = 3 NOISE_TOMOGRAPHY = 3 SAVE_FORWARD = .false.

Note Step 3 is an adjoint simulation, please refer to previous chapters on how to prepare adjoint sources and other necessary files, as well as how adjoint simulations work.

It is better to run the three steps continuously within the same job on a cluster, otherwise you have to collect the saved surface movies from the old nodes to the new nodes. This process varies from cluster to cluster and thus cannot be discussed here. Please ask your cluster administrator for information/configuration of the cluster you are using.

Post-simulation

After those simulations, you have all stuff you need, either in the OUTPUT_FILES/ or in the directory specified by LOCAL_PATH in Par_file (which are most probably on local nodes). Collect whatever you want from the local nodes to your workstation, and then visualize them. This process is the same as what you may have done for regular earthquake simulations. Refer to other chapters if you have problems.

Simply speaking, two outputs are the most interesting: the simulated ensemble cross correlations and one contribution of the ensemble sensitivity kernels.

The simulated ensemble cross correlations are obtained after the second simulation (Step 2). Seismograms in OUTPUT_FILES/ are actually the simulated ensemble cross correlations. Collect them immediately after Step 2, or the Step 3 will overwrite them. Note that we have a ‘main’ receiver specified by irec_main_noise, the seismogram at one station corresponds to the cross correlation between that station and the ‘main’. Since the seismograms have three components, we may obtain cross correlations for different components as well, not necessarily the cross correlations between vertical components.

One contribution of the ensemble cross-correlation sensitivity kernels are obtained after Step 3, stored in the DATA/LOCAL_PATH on local nodes. The ensemble kernel files are named the same as regular earthquake kernels.

You need to run another three simulations to get the other contribution of the ensemble kernels, using different forward and adjoint sources given in Tromp et al. (2010).

Example

In order to illustrate noise simulations in an easy way, one example is provided in EXAMPLES/noise_tomography/. See EXAMPLES/noise_tomography/README for explanations.

Note, however, that they are created for a specific workstation (CLOVER@PRINCETON), which has at least 4 cores with ‘mpif90’ working properly.

If your workstation is suitable, you can run the example in EXAMPLES/noise_tomography/ using:

./pre-processing.sh

Even if this script does not work on your workstation, the procedure it describes is universal. You may review the whole process described in the last section by following the commands in pre-processing.sh, which should contain enough explanations for all the commands.

References

Tromp, Jeroen, Yang Luo, Shravan Hanasoge, and Daniel Peter. 2010. “Noise Cross-Correlation Sensitivity Kernels.” Geophys. J. Int. 183: 791–819. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04721.x.


This documentation has been automatically generated by pandoc based on the User manual (LaTeX version) in folder doc/USER_MANUAL/ (Nov 21, 2022)